2014 > Letnik 4, št. 3




The study focuses on the special features of business English learning and teaching.

It intends to provide readers, particularly teachers, trainers, and course organizers, with an insight into the specifics and essentials of the business English teaching contexts, gained by the author through 25 years of teaching experience with general business-experienced language learners, job-experienced language learners from companies or other business, public and state institutions, and pre-experience language learners studying business English at colleges, private language schools, universities, and in courses training teachers, trainers, language consultants, newly-qualified teachers, and more experienced teachers who are new to teaching business English.

Key words: business English, teaching, training, intercultural business communication, business vocabulary, business grammar, syllabus and course design, lesson planning, learning languages, professional skills, methodology and materials, globalisation, basic business awareness, ESP, CELTA, BET, new trends.

The first time a teacher enters a classroom to teach business English, he is usually overconfident, but learns very quickly that teaching business English requires much more than just the knowledge of basic business vocabulary and grammar. On the other hand, many teachers of English feel terrified by teaching business English, because they believe it is the similar to teaching business case studies in an MBA program.
Newly-qualified teachers generally lack basic business awareness and understanding of business life situations that were a pre-condition for equally participating in all language activities. They are not familiar with the intercultural challenge, cultural dimensions, and the concept of business communication (Gibson, 2002). They are grasping for air when dealing with the discourse of financial and accounting English, not knowing what a P&L is, struggling with the significance of balance sheets and financial reports. It is difficult for the newly-qualified teachers when dealing with the mind-set of different forms and levels of (international) business and management (strategic, project, supply-chain, change, crisis).
Most of the newly-qualified teachers were never taught at University about teaching Business English, and I wonder why not. It would be an overstatement to say that English Departments at the University are only focused on prepping students for becoming teachers of General English, but many times this is very close to the truth.
It is still a matter of self-interest and self-motivation for individuals in the teaching industry to discover on their own the realms of established standards for the research, analysis, design, production, and distribution of all forms used within a business entity, i.e. organisation.
English is unquestionably the international language of business and business English. Business English is much more than what is seen in language classrooms. It is present daily in the lives of executives, entrepreneurs, managers, stock brokers, etc.

English is unquestionably the international language of business and business English. There has not been much interest in the academic world in examining the specifics and the demands of teaching business English. The reader will find only a few thought-provoking articles and studies (e.g. Abrudan 2012, Daly 2002, Jendrych 2011, Sampath and Zalipour 2010, Zhang 2007) and practical guides to teaching business English, such as Frendo's 'How to Teach Business English' (2005), Ellis and Johnson's 'Teaching Business English' (1994) and Donna's 'Teach Business English' (2000).
In the article 'New Trends in Teaching and Learning Business English: Adapting to Internalization' (2012), Abrudan focuses on how new trends have appeared in teaching business English due to globalization and the impact of technology. She examines the major influences that have affected the teaching and learning of business English and how technology and globalization have changed the business practices on the international stage.

Daly in his article 'Methodology for Using Case Studies in the Business English Language Classroom' (2002) reflects on "the types of case studies available to language learners and teachers and elaborates a methodology on how these case studies can be exploited to maximise student talking time in the language classroom". He argues that case studies are "extremely rich in content" and learners can build up already "acquired knowledge" and improve the training of "specific language and managerial skills". We can agree with Daly when he argues the "language teachers inexperienced in the use of the case study method may be inhibited by the content-based nature of the case study and therefore shy away from using case studies in class". As a result, it is extremely important for teachers to carefully prepare their lesson plans, which assure proper execution in the classroom.

In her study 'New Approach to Teaching English for Business Communication' (2011), Jendrych presents new developments in teaching English for business communication to pre-experienced students. She looks at teaching methodologies in Europe in the last 40 years. As Abrudan, Jendrych also believes that globalisation has had a significant impact on teaching business English. English teachers need much higher qualifications (business skills, content knowledge) than in the past. According to Jendrych, teaching materials should be based "on corpus studies that could prioritize the highest-frequency business lexis and streamline students' efforts", so that students today become better business communicators.

In 'Effective Teaching Strategies for Learners of Business Communication', Sampath and Zalipour look at the way business discourse is viewed and share with the reader scholarly views, effective strategies and practical methods that they should be used in the classroom. They believe that the learners should get more involved in the execution of learning activities to develop "their abilities to communicate effectively in the business world".

From an international perspective, Dr Zuocheng Zhang reviews the practices in the teaching of Business English in China over the past 50 years in his study 'Towards an integrated approach to teaching Business English: A Chinese experience' (2007). Zhang's study is particularly attention-grabbing for the reader because of his views on new approaches to curriculum design (structure of a tripartite curriculum). Zhang rightly concludes that there has been "an evolution from intuition-led practices to content-based teaching, and to more research-based practices". According to Zhang, teaching business English today is more about cultivating "business expertise rather than just teaching language skills".

The practical guides (Frendo 2005, Ellis and Johnson 1994, Donna 2000) I examined are similar in content, but slightly different in presentation of material. All throw light on the history of teaching business English, special features of business English learning and teaching, on the analysis of learners' needs and syllabus design, selecting and developing materials and managing activities in the classroom, and examine current trends in business English.

In 'How to Teach Business English' (2005), Frendo starts with what is special about business English. He examines the business English learner and groups them together into categories, according to experience level in the organisation's hierarchy, national culture, need, and language level. According to Frendo, there are three types of learners: pre-experienced learners, job-experienced learners, and general business-experienced learners. Looking at teaching contexts, business English teachers normally work within education institutes, private language schools, in-company, and 1-to1. The business English teacher can work as trainer, coach, and consultant. Learners should be able to develop their English skills for use in a business context. Frendo states that English used in international business is many times different from English that native speakers use, so teachers need to be sensitive to this issue. Therefore, business English should be used together with business communication skills (Frendo 2005, 7). When teaching business communication, teachers should consider the issue of communicative competence, linguistic competence, discourse competence, intercultural competence, avoid creating stereotypes. It is true that business English can be taught in many ways. Frendo discusses different approaches to teaching business English, such as communicative language teaching (CLT), but concludes that there is no single best method. In chapter 2, Frendo assesses the needs and preferences; looking carefully at a business English needs analysis, and its elements, such as communications needs, pedagogic needs, and business needs. In chapters 3 and 4, he emphasises the importance of designing a course (setting objectives, syllabus components, negotiating the syllabus, and managing the logistics) and the right choice of materials, outlining the importance of use of framework materials, and discussing the advantages and disadvantages of using ready-made materials. In chapters 5 and 6, Frendo examines speaking skills (socializing, small talk, speaking on the telephone, presentations, meeting, negotiating) and writing skills (correspondence, contracts, reports, CVs, agendas and minutes, writing for the Internet) used in business English. In chapter 7, Frendo considers how teaching can be done when the learner is in a different place, distant from the teacher. This can be done through distance learning, teaching by telephone, and e-learning for business (intranet learning platform, web-based research projects, web conferencing, use of electronic tools, the class website, etc.). In chapter 8, he looks at the importance of intercultural training. Finally, in Chapter 9, Frendo throws light on course evaluation and assessment.

Frendo's practical guide provides us with valuable and fresh insights into the teaching of business English. It is well written and precise. The key issues are properly explained and dealt with. Methods, used in the book, can be applied immediately in practice. On the whole, a good example of how a practical guide should be written.

Ellis and Johnson's 'Teaching Business English' (1994) is a publication of an older date. It is a part of the Oxford Handbooks series for Language Teachers. The main objective is to provide readers, particularly teachers, trainers, and course organisers working with job-experienced language learners and pre-experience language learners, "with a practical approach to the teaching of business English".
The authors emphasise, with good reason, that there is a clear difference between the terms 'training' and 'teaching': "training" referring to what adults receive in a company context (e.g. sales training, IT training, management training, leadership training, etc.), implying the development of skills in using language as a means of communication versus 'teaching', implying education; the passing on of knowledge, but also of a right and wrong way of doing things, and involving giving information about the system of the language. (Ellis and Johnson 1994, xiv)
The book is divided into three parts: Introduction to Business English, Analysis the Needs of the Learners, and Activities and Materials. In Part One, Ellis and Johnson provide us with a general background to the subject, looking at what business English is, who wants to learn business English, where business English is taught, what resources (background, experience, personal skills, knowledge) are expected from a business English trainer, and what the performance objectives for business English should be. Part Two focuses on the needs of the learner and on shaping the content of a course. In Part Three, Ellis and Johnson give us valuable advice on the selection of authentic materials and the development of materials and activities for the classroom.

In Ellis and Johnson's 'Teaching Business English', the important elements of needs analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development, which are common to all fields of work in ESP, are accurately presented to the reader and call attention to. Ellis and Johnson have written a good book, which is extremely valuable to the teacher, offering suggestions and strategies for dealing with different kinds of learners and situation, when teaching business English. It is a fact that learners are without question demanding. Accordingly, all the recommendations in this book should be implemented in practice in the classroom.

Donna's 'Teach Business English' (2000) provides us with practical help, which is based on the rich experience she has gained working in over 10 countries worldwide with a wide range business English students. She gives us everyday guidelines for "teaching and practical suggestions for procedures from the enquiry stage to course evaluation". (Donna 2000, 1) The book is divided into 10 sections, covering areas such as setting thinks up, setting up courses, day-to-day concerns, developing students' skills, solving or avoiding problems, assessing students' progress, being accountable, evaluating courses, and moving towards a better future. Donna deals with a wide range of teaching situations (1-to1 tutorials, short courses, and extensive courses) and describes the procedures very well. She has written a book, which provides us with a framework for business English teaching. It contains many follow-up activities and will be very useful for both the novice and the experienced teacher and for teachers of mono- and multi-lingual classes.

Upon the anniversary of 55 years of International House's work, IHWO decided to compile a collection of articles from the IH Journal of Education and Development. The result was 'Best Practice in Language in Language Teaching' (Scott 2008). The value and significance of the publication is the number of well-known figures from the world of English language teaching and the quality of their contributions. The book is divided into 8 sections. Section 6 focuses on Business English and ESP. Thought-provoking and academic contributions on learning, lexis, and business English were made by Nick Hamilton, Christopher Holloway, Kate Baade, Maximilliano Orlando and Mark Forehand. Highly recommended reading for general English and business English teachers at all levels.

I strongly believe that all English teachers, particularly newly-qualified teachers and more experienced teachers who are new to teaching general English and business English, should get proper training, which is not offered at the University, and receive appropriate guidelines and adequate feedback before standing in front of a group of highly motivated business English language learners.
In addition to the formal teaching education gained through the Universities, there are many additional courses in the market for English teachers offered by various private institutions and organizations. The two certified courses I follow when planning and teaching my lessons in the business English classroom, and I would strongly recommend, are BET 1 (Business English Teaching Level 1) for business English teaching and CELTA (Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) for general English teaching.

The International House Business English Teaching Level 1 course (BET 1) is intended primarily for newly/recently qualified teachers with CELTA, IHCTL or equivalent, and more experienced teachers of general English who wish to diversify into business English.
Before taking BET 1, it is strongly advised that English teachers take CELTA, which "is one of the most widely taken qualifications of its kind" and it opens up "a whole world of exciting English language teaching opportunities" (see CELTA website). It is for people with little or no previous teaching experience. The syllabus of a CELTA course consists of five specific topic areas:
• Learners and teachers, and the teaching and learning context
• Language analysis and awareness
• Language skills: reading, listening, speaking and writing
• Planning and resources for different teaching contexts
• Developing teaching skills and professionalism.
After completing the CELTA course, newly-qualified teachers get the skills, knowledge and hands-on teaching practice you need to be a successful English language teacher.

BET 1 is a 50 hour course consisting of 30 hours of input (face-to-face or online) and 20 hours of homework (reading or action research) tasks, plus a post-course reflection. In addition to this, participants are given reading to do in advance of each session, which forms the basis of the session itself. It is aimed at either newly-qualified teachers (post-CELTA/IHCTL) or more experienced teachers who are new to teaching Business English.
Some of the tasks involve action research in the classroom and participants are expected to have access to a business class either during an extensive course or soon after an intensive version. The course has two complementary aims:
• To provide participants with the necessary skills and knowledge to start teaching business English.
• To prepare participants to take the LCCI FTBE exam.

The course contains 30 modules divided into 3 strands: Basic Business Awareness, Professional Skills, and Methodology and Materials.
Strand 1 (Basic Business Awareness) aims to demystify the world of business and the language, which often serves to complicate quite straightforward concepts. It is designed to give teachers confidence in their business knowledge and a context within which they can discuss the issues in the other two strands. The reading tasks have 2 aims:
• To consolidate and expand on the knowledge gained in the sessions.
• To familiarise teachers with sources for learning about business.

The modules covered in Strand 1 are business speaking skills, business writing skills, corporate structure, marketing, sales, accountancy, banking, markets, human resources management, product development and production.
Strand 2 (Professional Skills) concentrates on the different mind-set that teachers need to bring to business English teaching. This includes how to treat the students as clients and how to meet the (higher / different) expectations of business students. Modules covered in Strand 2 are Needs analysis, Syllabus design, Principles of lesson planning, 'The client approach' to teaching executives, Conducting feedback.

Strand 3 (Methodology and Materials) brings everything together. It discusses how to teach the language looked at in Strand 1 in the context examined in Strand 2. Modules covered in Strand 3 are learner-centred approaches, approaches to classroom practice, the lexical approach, practicing speaking skills, practicing writing skills, using authentic materials, adapting published materials, adapting materials from video and radio, the numerical-graphical approach, business games, creating your own materials.

BET 1 is a foundation course, or as James Lambie states at the beginning of the BET 1 handbook: "It is designed to give Course Participants (CPs) a basic grasp of the main issues and techniques involved in teaching business English, so that they feel confident enough to go away to experiment and discover for themselves in the classroom."
In 2009, in recognition of my personal achievement, I was awarded the BET 1 professional certification of Certified Trainer.
After carrying out a BET 1 course, I always analyse in detail the feedback that I receive from the participants, particularly on the course outline, course aims, and course content. It is very valuable and helpful in further preparation for new courses. I would like to share with the reader a selection of some of the important points made by trainees in my courses in their post-course reflective assignments.
One of my best trainees, David Walker, made some very thought-provoking remarks:
"Following the BET1 course and the progression of this particular class, I feel that my approach to teaching business English has indeed developed. As well as being familiar with the topics and selecting and adapting suitable materials and activities, I now have the confidence to experiment in class while maintaining professionalism and delivering according to the students' expectations."

"I learnt many new approaches, concepts and techniques while taking the BET1 course. Through applying these in my business English, and often general English, classes, I have been inspired to continue my business education. Rather than looking at the BBC website for the most important world news and football results, I will now have a look at the business pages. I also now frequent the website of The Financial Times and will do further research if I find an article that interests me or may be suitable for one of my classes."

"The BET1 course, along with the four business English classes that I teach, has changed my opinion of teaching business English. I had little experience of this kind of teaching before I came to Slovenia and I was nervous that it would be deadly serious and quite boring. However, I now realise that through careful and imaginative planning, business English classes can be motivational and a lot of fun for both the students and the teacher."
"..I now realise that through careful and imaginative planning, business English classes can be motivational and a lot of fun for both the students and the teacher."
Eoin Raymond Ansbro believes:
"Overall the BET 1 course has underpinned my own practical teaching experience and helped me to establish appropriate methods and approaches to teaching business English classes."
Ivan Pavelšek summarised by concluding:
"Overall, I am extremely satisfied with what I have learned in the BET 1 course, even though at times it seemed too daunting for a person who previously showed very little interest in the world of business. I am hoping to further put my knowledge into practice and to keep improving."
Katja Kranjec stated:
"I have gained a grasp of the main terminology and issues in different fields of business English. I was given some good references and a lot of ideas and materials for further study. I feel more comfortable in teaching business English now as I have gained an overview."
"In the process of foreign language acquisition the teacher should above all serve as a facilitator, helping the student to become a more active learner. The teacher should help and encourage the student to become more aware of his learning styles and his strongest intelligences."
"To conclude, my approach to business English teaching has definitely improved – business English does not seem so abstract and difficult to me anymore. I have got an overview of basic business issues and techniques and a lot of new material as well as practical ideas on how to make business classes more interesting and useful to our clients. And above all I had a chance to try out most of the activities myself and share the ideas with my colleagues, which made the whole learning process even more effective."
Interesting points were also made by Lea Podkrajšek in her post-course reflective assignment:
»I would like to begin by saying that before doing the BET 1 course I imagined teaching business English is completely different from teaching general English. But throughout the course I realised that there is not much difference between the two of them. I expected the topics to be boring and I have to admit that I was pleasantly surprised. I found some of the topics extremely interesting. Then I started thinking: Does general English even exist? What does it refer to? Everybody has different reasons for learning English and some experts even argue that there is no such thing as general English, only English for specific purposes. I have to say that in a way I agree with this idea since everybody needs English for different reasons, whether it be travelling, studying, watching films in English or English of business. What is more, students' needs are constantly changing, especially when it comes to English for business purposes. They are concerned in view of the changes going on in the labour market. Consequently, shifts in the pedagogy of teaching business English."
Finally, I would like to share with the reader Nuša Berce's reflections. Nuša had always been slightly afraid of teaching business classes. After successfully finishing the BET 1 course, she gained enough confidence to enter the business English classroom with ease. These are her thoughts on what she learnt from the course:
• To teach students business English correspondence skills as almost all professionals who use English for business will need to write letters, memos, invitations as well as reports.
• To give my future students realistic business English practice through role-plays of meetings, business negotiations, telephone conversations or customer service.
• To include actual business presentations.
• To provide a rich selection of discussion topics.
• To keep in mind that business English students are typically people with a lot of work and responsibilities, so they may not have time for much homework. To leave enough time and space for revision.
• Social skills and body language are also extremely important. I should provide my students with the vocabulary they can use to socialize and chat with English-speaking partners and colleagues at business lunches and during breaks at international conferences.
• And most of all: to keep it fun, creative and professional.
The post-course reflections made by the trainees speak for themselves and do not need any additional explanation. BET 1 is a course that I would strongly recommend to all English teachers. It has been proven repeatedly that a gap exists and that there is a need for it to be closed in a methodical and professional manner. Participants of BET 1 are given the necessary skills and knowledge to start teaching business English and the investment is repaid in gold after leaving the business English classroom on the first day.


Although we live in an age of the Internet, computers, video-recorders, television sets, etc., we should be able to use these tools to our advantage in teaching business English.
As was mentioned earlier in the study, it is important to choose materials that will best help the learners to achieve their objectives. Inexperienced trainers and teachers will rely on published course books with a fixed syllabus, content, and methodology. Experienced trainers will strive to create 'authentic' situations in the classroom and will create materials themselves.

We should emphasise that it is important to create one's own worksheets, and we should be focused on the learners' needs and what they should take away from our lessons. We should keep in mind at all times what we need to do as teachers to achieve the course's (lesson's) aims, what content should be chosen, structure and what are the opportunities for assessment.

Therefore, we need to choose our materials wisely. There are lots of books and online resources available. As a starter, newly-qualified teachers will find useful Strutt's 'Longman Business English Usage' (1992), the business grammar builders written by Paul Emmerson and Michael Duckworth, business vocabulary builders written by Paul Emmerson, business English activities compiled by Nick Brieger, Jane Cordell, John Crowther-Alwyn, David Evans, Marjorie Rosenberg, Steve Flinders, Simon Sweeney, Jeremy Comfort, Robern Gibson, Jeremy Harmer, to mention a few.
There are many business English dictionaries available in book format (Cambridge, Longman, Oxford, Barron's) and online. For teachers in Slovenia, an interesting, useful and slightly different dictionary is the 'Dictionary of Business Terms in English and Slovenian' (2001), which also exists in electronic form. I personally provided the index editing in the dictionary and together with the authors, we created a dictionary, which is written in a simple and understandable language for laypersons. It deals with all the major areas of business (finance, accounting, sales, marketing, organisational behaviour, human resource management, operations management, general management).
The Internet is a great source for finding helpful teaching and learning materials and resources. I am convinced every business English teacher has a list of his own. Nevertheless, I would like to share with the reader links to materials that have proven to be useful in my classes:
1. Dictionaries and encyclopaedias
• http://www.google.si/#hl=sl&source=hp&biw=1916&bih=1015&q=english+dictionary&aq=0&aqi=g10&aql=&oq=english&gs_rfai=&fp=62b525055c05b74e (choose any dictionary on the first page)
• http://www.businessdictionary.com/
• http://www.thesaurus.com/
• http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/
• http://dictionary.reference.com/
• http://www.evroterm.gov.si/evrokorpus/index.php?jezik=angl
• http://www.evroterm.gov.si/index.php?jezik=angl
• http://www.evroterm.gov.si/x/index.php?jezik=angl
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
• http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Main_Page
• http://www.investopedia.com/
• http://www.ask.com/
• http://www.about.com/

2. Reading: newspapers, magazines, TV, etc.
• http://www.wrx.zen.co.uk/alltnews.htm
• http://www.world-newspapers.com/
• http://www.sloveniatimes.com/
• http://www.thebigproject.co.uk/news/
• http://www.englishstudydirect.com/OSAC/medianews.htm
• http://www.onlinenewspapers.com/englanda-k.htm
• http://online.wsj.com/uk
• http://ajw.asahi.com/
• http://www.thestandard.com.hk/
• http://www.nytimes.com/
• http://www.theguardian.com/uk/business
• http://www.theglobeandmail.com/
• http://www.businessweek.com/
• http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/index.html
• http://www.bbc.com/
• http://edition.cnn.com/
• http://www.nbcnews.com/
• http://www.abc.net.au/news/
• http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada

3. Business English Grammar Exercises
• http://www.business-english.com/
• http://englishonline.sites.uol.com.br/english/intermediate.htm
• http://www.better-english.com/grammar.htm
• http://www.ego4u.com/en/business-english/grammar
• http://www.english-grammar-lessons.com/
• http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/language/
• http://www.englishmedialab.com/business.html
• http://speakspeak.com/html/d2_english_resources_business_vocab_library.htm
• http://www.nonstopenglish.com/allexercises/business_english/

4. Social networking websites and language exchange
• https://www.linkedin.com/
• https://twitter.com/
• https://www.facebook.com/
• http://www.mylanguageexchange.com/Default.asp
• http://www.openculture.com/freelanguagelessons
• http://www.learnalanguage.com/

5. Business English Resources for English Teachers

• All publications from major publishing houses, e.g. Cambridge, Oxford, Macmillan, Market Leader, etc.
• http://www.onestopenglish.com/business/
• http://www.businessenglishresources.com/
• http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/english-for-business
• http://sandymillin.wordpress.com/2011/11/26/online-resources-for-business-english-teaching/
• http://www.ihes.com/bcn/tt/business-links.html
• http://www.eslgold.com/business/teaching.html
• http://www.freeeslmaterials.com/business_english.html
• https://www.google.si/search?q=Teaching+Resources+for+the+ELT+Classroom&oq=Teaching+Resources+for+the+ELT+Classroom&aqs=chrome..69i57.343j0j7&sourceid=chrome&es_sm=93&ie=UTF-8
• http://www.teachingtips.com/blog/2008/06/24/100-best-resources-and-guides-for-esl-teachers/
• http://busyteacher.org/
• http://www.esl-lounge.com/

Business English courses are becoming more and more popular among language learners. The serious business English learner is well educated, has high expectations, and knows exactly what he wants. He is willing to invest a lot of time and money in gaining additional education. Therefore, it is only right that we set up courses at the highest level and allow only the best teachers to teach business English courses. It is mandatory for teachers to be properly prepared. Additional training is available, such as BET 1 and CELTA, and the gap can be closed, but as lifelong learning is a permanent process, we as teachers will never stop learning.

Abrudan, Cristina Laura. 2012. New Trends in Teaching and Learning Business English: Adapting to Internalization. Annals of the University of Oradea 21 (1): 170-175.

Cambridge English Language Assessment. CELTA (Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages). Available: http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/teaching-english/teaching-qualifications/celta/
Comfort, Jeremy, and N. Brieger. 1998. Business English Meetings: Instant Agendas. London: Penguin Books.
Cordell, Jane. 2000. Cambridge Business English Activities: Serious Fun for Business English Students. Cambridge: University Press.
Crowther-Alwyn, John. 1997. Business Roles 1: 12 Simulations for Business English. Cambridge: University Press.
Crowther-Alwyn, John. 1999. Business Roles 2: 12 More Simulations for Business English. Cambridge: University Press.
Daly, Peter. 2002. Methodology for Using Case Studies in the Business English Language Classroom. The Internet TESL Journal, 8 (11). Available: http://iteslj.org/
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Duckworth, Michael. 2003. Business Grammar & Practice. Oxford: University Press.
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Emmerson, Paul. 2002. Business Grammar Builder. Oxford: Macmillan Education.
Emmerson, Paul. 2002. Business English Frameworks. Cambridge: University Press.
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Emmerson, Paul. 2009. Business Vocabulary Builder: Intermediate to Upper-intermediate.
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Evans, David. 1997. Decisionmaker: 14 Business Situations for Analysis and Discussion. Cambridge: University Press.
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Flinders, Steve, and S. Sweeney. 1996. Business English Pair Work 1: Conversation Practice for Business People. London: Penguin Books.
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International House World Organisation. BET 1 (Business English Teaching Level 1). Available: http://ihworld.com/teachers/course-details/ih_certificate_business_english.
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